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ECD Resources

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by Save the Children

The framework presented in this document is not designed solely to address issues in developing countries, but instead recognises that action to advance sustainable human development is required in low-, middle- and high-income countries alike. It is a universal framework, with all governments having a role to play to achieve each goal, either within their own countries or through international cooperation.

All of the targets included in the framework are relevant to, and should be pursued in, all countries. Some have quantitative success thresholds that are applicable to all, based on internationally agreed standards or where the indicator relates to a zero goal. Others have success indicators that should be used in all countries, but the exact level at which success will be deemed achieved should be set nationally.

by State of the World's children 2013, UNICEF

Children with disabilities encounter different forms of exclusion and are affected by them to varying degrees, depending on factors such as the type of disability they have, where they live and the culture or class to which they belong. Gender is also a crucial factor: Girls are less likely than boys to receive care and food and are more likely to be left out of family interactions and activities. Girls and young women with disabilities are ‘doubly disabled’. They confront not only the prejudice and inequities encountered by many persons with disabilities, but are also constrained by traditional gender roles and barriers. Girls with disabilities are also less likely to get an education, receive vocational training or find employment than are boys with disabilities or girls without disabilities. 


SEAMEO Innotech has prioritized Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) in Southeast Asia as one of its programmatic areas to support universalization of ECCD in the region. As part of its research agenda, the Center has completed an investigation of the ECCD quality assurance policies, mechanisms and models being implemented by SEAMEO member countries. 

by The Economist

Consciously setting aside a time to stimulate young children’s development is a relatively new phenomenon. Until the 1980s, preschools in most countries were largely focussed on providing simple child minding.1 But as economies shift towards more knowledge-based activities, awareness about child development—the need to improve their social awareness, confidence and group interaction skills, and to prepare them for starting primary education—continues to grow. Nevertheless, policymakers still give most attention to the tertiary, secondary and primary levels of education, in descending order of importance, with the least focus given to the early years of child development. 

by Family Health Bureau, Ministry of Health Sri Lanka, UNICEF

This study aimed to determine the age specific normative patterns (age percentiles) of what children can do or know (skills) and subsequently use these to compile a series of Early Child Developmental Standards that reflect the development patterns of Sri Lankan children. These norms provide the context specific basis for understanding the development patterns of Sri Lankan children in early years. The age percentiles could also be considered as essential baseline information required for constructing context specific development screening tools. 

by The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development

Extensive evidence is found in the minority world on effective measures ensuring children’s successful progress and smooth transition into and through the early years of formal education. A good recent example, reviewing the research, is Reynolds, Magnuson, and Ou (2010)1

. In the majority world, however, it remains necessary to piece together relatively scanty evidence from different kinds of sources, and the research on many fronts is either patchy or nonexistent. While an argument can certainly be made for extrapolating from minority world evidence, doing so is risky. There are a lot of areas of shared concern—pupil-teacher ratios, age at entry, effective pedagogy, and parental involvement, to name just a few. But too often the context surrounding these terms is so different that attempts to build on this evidence are questionable and can even become misleading.

This annotated bibliography focuses on work published since 2007 that contributes to an understanding of factors that are relevant to children’s transition to school in the majority world. Most of these studies do not, in fact, specifically address children’s transition into school, but they relate to the context of this transition, and have relevance, more in some cases, less in others, for school entry and success in the early years of primary. 


The international definition of “early childhood” is the period from birth to eight years of age. This period represents an absolutely critical stage of a person’s life: that is why ensuring that a child passes through this stage successfully requires integrated, comprehensive, and multi-sectoral support encompassing health, nutrition, education and protection, with a view to enhancing the child’s development and learning in a holistic manner.

Given this definition, early childhood care and education (ECCE) becomes not only a preparatory stage facilitating a child’s transition to formal schooling and an important determinant of eventual success at higher levels of education but also an essential factor in the broader context of social development, gender equity and poverty reduction. Several Southeast Asian countries, such as Myanmar, the Philippines, and Viet Nam, have adopted this international definition, while others use the age range of 0-to-5 or 0-to-6 years. 

by Vikram Jain, Director FSG

These are the presentation slides from the ARNEC webinar 11 December 2018 :

Transforming Early Education in India through Activity based learning presented by FSG's Program to improve Private Early Education (PIPE)

You may listen to the recording via: 


Cambodia was one of six countries that participated in the East Asia- Pacific Early Child Development Scales (EAP-ECDS) project, supported by UNICEF- East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO), the Open Society Foundations, and the Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC).

The main objective of this project was to equip stakeholders across East Asia and the Pacific with a common measurement tool to assess the holistic developmental progress of children ranging in age from three to five years. It was felt that stakeholders in Cambodia including governments, universities, research institutions and donor partners, would be able to utilise the data garnered from this project to promote early development and learning, and prevent the loss of human potential by investing in the early years.

by Save the Children

The near universal and deep rooted acceptance of physical punishment in childrearing and education makes the enactment of legislation prohibiting it – together with the adoption of measures to implement the law and eliminate corporal punishment in practice – a challenging task. test test


Violence against children – “encompassing physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, and maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse”– is prevalent in all societies (UN CRC, 1989; Gilbert et al., 2009; Krug et al., 2002; Pinheiro, 2006). Violence against children can have profound and damaging consequences in childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood. Test Test


Millions of children are on the move across international borders – fleeing violence and conflict, disaster or poverty, in pursuit of a better life. Hundreds of thousands move on their own. When they encounter few opportunities to move legally, children resort to dangerous routes and engage smugglers to help them cross borders. Serious gaps in the laws, policies and services meant to protect children on the move further leave them bereft of protection and care. 

by Zero to Three

The Early Experiences Matter Policy Guide is your set of tools for taking action and improving public policies that impact the lives of infants, toddlers, and their families.

by Lien Foundation

There is overwhelming evidence from international research to show that a quality preschool experience can make a significant difference to young children’s lives (OECD 2006, UNESCO 2000). Research evidence also shows that quality preschool provisions can make a positive difference to children from disadvantaged or vulnerable backgrounds. 


The Policy Forum was organized to provide a platform for high-level policy-makers in the region to share knowledge and discuss strategies for capacity development, policy formulation, good practice, partnerships and research, with a view to improving young children’s “readiness to learn”, from both children’s and schools’ perspectives, with special attention to the promotion of equity. 

by UCL Institute of Education, UNICEF

Conflict and fragile conditions that arise as a result of adversities such as civil wars, deprivation and emergency situations invariably compromise the lives of children. This research is concerned with a major issue; that of early childhood development and peacebuilding at a policy level in conflictaffected and post-conflict countries.


The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development charts an ambitious course for the coming decade and beyond. Reaching further than its precursor, the Millennium Development Goals, the Agenda brings together the social, economic and environmental dimensions of development. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a clarion call for a more equitable future, and at their core is a commitment to leave no one behind.

by Bernard van Leer Foundation

2018 edition of Early Childhood Matters featuring keynote contributions from the President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos Calderón, on the ‘De Cero a Siempre’ policy; Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of the WHO, on nurturing care; IRC President David W. Miliband on the humanitarian system and young children; and UN Special Representative Marta Santos Pais on violence prevention.

by World Health Organization

The case for nurturing care Investing in early childhood development is one of the best investments a country can make to boost economic growth, promote peaceful and sustainable societies, and eliminate extreme poverty and inequality.

by World Health Organization

The Nurturing Care Framework provides a roadmap for action. It builds on state-of-the-art evidence about how early childhood development unfolds and how it can be improved by policies and interventions. 


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